2023 Vol. 42, No. 4

Display Method:
Design of Intelligent Cutting Equipment to Avoid Node and Fixed Length for Moso Bamboo
LI Sheng-wei, ZHANG Jian, ZHU Ling-qin, WU An-qi, ZHANG Wen-fu, WANG Jin, YUAN Shao-fei
2023, 42(4): 1-12. doi: 10.12390/jbr2023034
Abstract(83) PDF(34)
Abstract:
【Objective】 Cutting the whole bamboo with saw into a specific length specification is the most important process in bamboo primary processing. Most of the existing bamboo sawing equipment has problems such as low mechanization level,big potential safety risks and high labor cost,so it is urgent to design and manufacture advanced sawing equipment to promote the healthy development of bamboo primary processing industry. 【Method】 Using the technology of image acquisition and visualization analysis,based on programmable logic controller (PLC),an intelligent sawing device for Moso bamboo was designed. 【Result】 In addition to the basic functions of the existing equipment,the flexible length determination (error range is ±30 mm),intelligent identification and avoidance of bamboo nodes,automatic unloading and sorting of bamboo segments were added,especially to achieve the technical requirements that there are no bamboo nodes within 30 mm at both ends of the obtained bamboo segments. Prototype tests were carried out for Moso bamboo on intelligent cutting equipment with fixed length with node avoidance. The accuracy of section setting,node avoidance and sorting reached 100%,the average processing efficiency reached about 27.37 m·min-1,the work efficiency was raised by 35% and the labor cost was reduced by more than 80% compared with those in the manual cutting. 【Conclusion】 The research and development of the equipment meet the current production needs,they have greatly improved the mechanization and automation level of the fixed-length saw cutting equipment,and improved the processing accuracy and raw material utilization rate at the same time,which provides conditions for the subsequent establishment of a production line for continuous and intelligent bamboo primary processing.
Research on Ancient Bamboo and Wood Toys and Their Contemporary Value
ZHANG Bao-xin, WEI Qiang, WANG Xiao-xu, FENG Yu-lan
2023, 42(4): 13-23. doi: 10.12390/jbr2023005
Abstract(98) PDF(96)
Abstract:
There has been a long history of the Chinese toys with great varieties. Based on production and living,bamboo and wood toys were created in the process of social development,reflecting evolution of social life and plant culture,and becoming important cultural heritage. But currently,there are problems like insufficient systematic studies on recognition and utilization of the traditional bamboo and wood toys,as well as insufficient in-depth exploration of cultural values. This paper took the traditional bamboo and wood toys as the object of study,and the research method was based on the textual research of literature materials,the content related to various bamboo and wood toys in ancient paintings and other ancient cultural relics was sorted out,summarizing and analyzing the development and evolution process of ancient bamboo and wood toys. In this paper,bamboo and wood toys were divided into types of puzzle,traction activities,carving and modeling,bamboo and wood weaving,human activities and others. And thereby their respective characteristics were summarized,and on this basis,the characteristics,advantages,and contemporary value of ancient bamboo and wood toys were explored. Ways were proposed to develop and utilize bamboo and wood toys that combine cultural and creative product development,tap into traditional design wisdom,and inherit and promote traditional culture,with the aim of further expanding ancient Chinese bamboo and wood culture.
Effects of Different De-enzyming Methods on Nutrition and Flavor Substances of the Dried Bamboo Shoots During Processing
ZHANG Xu, WANG Zi-jie, DU Li-fang, WANG An-ke, BI Yu-fang
2023, 42(4): 24-30. doi: 10.12390/jbr2023044
Abstract(92) PDF(106)
Abstract:
【Objective】 This paper aims to study on the effects of different de-enzyming methods,such as steaming and boiling,and time durations,on the nutrition and flavor substances of bamboo shoots,so as to provide scientific basis for improving the product quality in processing dried bamboo shoots. 【Method】 The contents of protein,oxalic acid,tannin,soluble sugar and total acids in bamboo shoots after steaming and boiling for 0.0,0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0,3.0,4.0 and 5.0 h were analyzed respectively to find out effects on Moso bamboo shoots by different time durations with various treatment methods. Protein was detected with method of BCA (bicinchoninic acid),oxalic acid was detected with method of indophenol blue colorimetry,tannin was detected with method of spectrophotometer directly,soluble sugar was detected with method of anthrone colorimetry,and the determination of total acid was carried out according to the national standard GB 12456—2021 “National Food Safety Standards,Determination of Total Acid in Foods”. The calculation of sugar-acid ratio is:sugar—acid ratio = sugar/acid. 【Result】 After steaming and boiling,the content of protein in all sample bamboo shoots was lost,and there was no evidence to prove that the significant loss of bamboo shoot protein by boiling is strongly linked to the treatment time. The content of oxalic acid of bamboo shoots by steaming was between 0.8 and 1.0 mg·g-1,and that by boiling was about 1.0 mg·g-1,and the control was about 0.1 mg·g-1. The tannin content of bamboo shoots treated with steaming and boiling was about 0.38 mg·g-1 and 0.41 mg·g-1,respectively,that of the control was 1.2 mg·g-1. Besides,the changes of oxalic acid and tannin contents have no correlation with the treatment time. Compared with boiling,in de-enzyming,steaming can retain more soluble sugar,the average soluble sugar of bamboo shoots by steaming was 8.82 mg·g-1,that of boiling was 6.96 mg·g-1,the control was 18.31 mg·g-1. The total acid content of bamboo shoots treated with the two methods was 0.1-0.2 mg·g-1,and the control was 0.84 mg·g-1,which had no obvious correlation with the treatment time. 【Conclusion】 Compared with boiled bamboo shoots,the steamed bamboo shoots retain more protein,soluble sugar and less oxalic acid and tannin. Therefore,it can be speculated that in de-enzyming,steaming is better than boiling. Combined with the actual production,the assembly line of steaming can process more fresh bamboo shoots faster,reducing the time for the peeled fresh bamboo shoots to be placed at room temperature,which greatly hilight this advantage. Another conclusion is treatment time has little effect on nutrition and flavor substances.
Current Situation and Prospect of Study and Utilization of Nutrients in Bamboo Shoot Processing Waste
SHAO Qiong, LI Wen, GUO Fan, BIAN Fang-yuan, YANG Hui-min
2023, 42(4): 31-36. doi: 10.12390/jbr2023060
Abstract(121) PDF(101)
Abstract:
【Objective】 As a high-fiber and low-fat forest food,bamboo shoots are increasingly favored by people. However,a large amount of waste generated during the processing of bamboo shoots has long failed to be recycled industrially. 【Method】 In this paper,the current research and utilization of macromolecular nutrients (such as dietary fiber,polysaccharide,protein,peptide,etc.) and small molecular nutrients (such as polyphenols,flavonoids,sterols,vitexin,etc.) contained in bamboo shoot processing waste (basal part of bamboo shoots,bamboo shoot shell,edible young shoot sheath,waste liquid) were reviewed at home and abroad. 【Result】 The basal parts and shells of bamboo shoots contain rich dietary fiber,protein,amino acid. The contents of total amino acids,essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids in bamboo shoots are higher than those in other parts. Meanwhile,bamboo shoot shells are rich in phenols,flavonoids and other active functional components with hypoglycaemia,antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. The basal parts and shells of bamboo shoots are excellent resources for the research and development of phytosterols. Quercetin,rutin and vitexin can be obtained by the separation and purification of flavonoids. 【Conclusion】 The waste from bamboo shoot processing is rich in nutrients with great potentials to be utilized as resources. In order to explore the value of waste recycling during bamboo shoot processing,this paper puts forward the prospect of future research,so as to provide more references for in-depth bamboo shoot processing and development of functional bamboo shoot food.
Effects of Different Cultivation Patterns on Leaf Morphology and Chemical Composition of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua
NING Yi-lin, ZHANG Xu, WANG Zi-jie, WANG An-ke, DU Xu-hua, BI Yu-fang
2023, 42(4): 37-41. doi: 10.12390/jbr2023059
Abstract(92) PDF(16)
Abstract:
【Objective】 To investigate the effects of different understory habitats on the chemical composition and leaf morphology of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. 【Method】 The leaf morphology and chemical constituents of P. cyrtonema Hua were determined in open space,Moso bamboo forest,Chinese fir forest,mixed Moso bamboo and Chinese fir forest,and the correlation between leaf shape and chemical constituents was analyzed. 【Result】 Compared with the open space,the leaf shape and chemical composition of P. cyrtonema Hua were affected by the three understory habitats. The top leaf length of P. cyrtonema Hua was decreased,and the maximum leaf width and bottom leaf width of P. cyrtonema Hua were increased. The contents of dioscin,diosgenin,total flavone and crude ash of P. cyrtonema Hua in the Moso bamboo forest were the highest,reaching 49.49 μg·g-1,64.99 μg·g-1,1.82 mg·g-1 and 3.73%,respectively. The results showed that diosgenin content was positively and negatively correlated with tip leaf length and maximum leaf width,respectively. 【Conclusion】 The chemical composition of P. cyrtonema Hua in the Moso bamboo forest was the best in the four treatments. This study provided a reference for the selection of understory habitat for interplanting P. cyrtonema Hua.
Effects of Mixed Cropping of Prunus serrulata with Ground Cover Sasa fortunei and Ophiopogon japonicus on Plant Growth Characteristics and Soil Nutrients
WU Shu-lei, SHI Wen-hui, HONG Cheng-jian, JI Rong-rong, XIONG Rui, YING Ye-qing
2023, 42(4): 42-50. doi: 10.12390/jbr2023029
Abstract(84) PDF(87)
Abstract:
【Objective】 In order to explore the effects of different planting patterns on the physiological characteristics of Prunus serrulataOphiopogon japonicus and Sasa fortunei and the soil nutrsents. 【Method】 In this study,field experiments were carried out with five planting patterns:P. serrulata monoculture,S. fortunei monoculture,O. japonicus monoculture,mixed planting of P. serrulata and S. fortunei,mixed planting of P. serrulata and O. japonicus. The photosynthetic index,leaf nitrogen content and soil nutrient content of three plants were measured at the blooming stage of P. serrulata. 【Result】 The results showed that,compared with the single cropping groups,the mixed cropping of P. serrulata and S. fortunei or P. serrulata and O. japonicus could lead to significant changes in soil chemical properties. The contents of total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen significantly decreased by 5.98% and 11.64% in the soil of the mixed cropping of P. serrulata and S. fortunei compared with the single cropping of P. serrulata,while the contents of ammonium nitrogen,total phosphorus and available phosphorus significantly increased by 8.91%,22.22% and 29.57% in the soil of the mixed cropping of P. serrulata and S. fortunei compared with the single cropping of S. fortunei. P. serrulata and O. japonicus mixed planting of organic matter,total nitrogen,alkali solution nitrogen,ammonium nitrogen,total phosphorus,effective phosphorus content compared with their own monoculture were significantly lower,while the P. serrulata and S. fortunei mixed cropping significantly increased the soil nutrient content. P. serrulata mixed with different ground cover plants showed different photosynthetic characteristics. The cherry blossoms mixed with different ground cover plants showed different photosynthetic characteristics. The net photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate and stomatal conductance of the leaves of P. serrulata mixed with S. fortunei were higher than those of P. serrulata monoculture,while the total chlorophyll content of P. serrulata mixed with O. japonicus significantly decreased by 25.85%,and the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration significantly increased by 11.83%. After being mixed with P. serrulata,the photosynthesis of the two types of ground cover plants had a positive effect,and the nitrogen nutrient absorption and chlorophyll content of the leaves were significantly increased. 【Conclusion】 The mixed cultivation of P. serrulata and S. fortunei could effectively promote the increase of leaf nitrogen content and net photosynthetic rate,and effectively improve soil nutrient fertility,so it could be popularized and applied as a cultivation mode with better ecological benefits.
Study on the Culm Structure and Allocation of Aboveground Biomass of Dendrocalamus tsiangii
HOU Yi-ju, YAO Wu-qing, YANG Guang-neng, CUI Ying-chun, ZHOU Hua, ZHANG Xi
2023, 42(4): 51-57. doi: 10.12390/jbr2023036
Abstract(97) PDF(96)
Abstract:
【Objective】In this study,the relationship between DBH and height,height below branch,component biomass was studied by taking the natural sympodial bamboo (Dendrocalamus tsiangii) in Libo County as the research object. The variation rule of bamboo inter length and the distribution pattern of aboveground biomass were studied,aiming to further enrich the research results of biological characteristics of this bamboo species and provide reference for biomass estimate and sustainable management of D. tsiangii. 【Method】 Using random sampling method to determine the biomass of the aboveground part and the water content of each component. 【Result】 The results showed that the correlation between the DBH and height of D. tsiangii,as well as the total biomass of culms, branches,leaves,and aboveground parts,fitted by multiple models,reached a highly significant level. The bamboo internode length showed the distribution law of ‘short—long—short’,and the bamboo culms whose internode length is 30-40 cm occupied 32% of the total. The aboveground biomass of the bamboo culms accounted for the largest proportion of the total,which reached 85.52%. The average water content of each component is decreasing in the trend of culm > branch > leaf,and gradually decreases with the increase of age class. The optimal growth models for DBH and total aboveground biomass,as well as biomass of bamboo culms,branches,and leaves,are as follows:Wtotal=0.372D2-0.753D+1.316 (R2=0.897),Wculm=0.343D2-0.875D+1.311 (R2=0.891),Wbranch=0.047e0.560D (R2=0.479)、Wleaf=0.079e0.469D (R2=0.622),the research provided a theoretical basis for scientific management of D. tsiangii. 【Conclusion】 This paper has enriched the biological characteristics research of D. tsiangii forest to some degree,and proposed mathematical models for the diameter at breast height,total aboveground biomass,and biomass of each component of this bamboo species,which has provided a scientific basis for accurately estimating the biomass of the bamboo forests.
Carbonate Minerals for Soil Amelioration and Their Application in Bamboo Forest Cultivation
HU Man-na, HE Jia-yong, LIU Jin-cheng, SONG Yang-jie, DING Xian-de, ZHOU Chun-hui
2023, 42(4): 58-67. doi: 10.12390/jbr2023033
Abstract(113) PDF(84)
Abstract:
Due to the elemental composition,structure,surface reactivity and environmental friendliness of dolomite (calcium carbonate magnesium) and limestone (calcium carbonate) minerals,there have been many studies in recent years to use them in soil conditioning,soil carbon sequestration,bamboo forest cultivation and so on. This paper reviews the application of carbonate minerals such as dolomite and limestone as well as their processed products such as quicklime and slaked lime in improving soil,promoting soil carbon sequestration and optimizing bamboo forest cultivation. The interaction of dolomite with hydrogen ions (H+) in acidified soil was used to improve soil acidification. Calcium and magnesium in dolomite and its calcined products was used as plant nutrients in soil. Dolomite interacts with organic matter in soil to promote the transformation of soil organic matter and increase the content of organic matter to promote soil carbon sequestration. Dolomite reduces the concentration of H+ in soil to avoid exchange and adsorption between H+ and heavy metal ions (such as Cd2+,Pb2+,Cr2+,etc.),and alleviates heavy metal pollution in soil. Dolomite, as a soil conditioner, enriches the calcium and traces elements in the soil and promotes the growth of bamboo. Adding calcium carbonate to fertilizer is beneficial to the growth of bamboo stump,Prunus pseudocerasus, Malus pumila,etc.,and the better control of soil heavy metals valence. Meanwhile,the hydrated lime produced by calcination of dolomite combine with H+ in soil to form weakly acidic salt and reduce the content of exchangeable acid (H+) in bamboo soil. In addition,Ca(OH)2 precipitates metal ions such as Cd2+ and Pb2+,and alleviates the pollution of soil by effective heavy metal elements. Finally,the deficiencies in the research of dolomite and limestone minerals and application in soil conditioning,soil carbon sequestration and bamboo forest cultivation were analyzed,and the key problems and application technology development directions of carbonate minerals and processed products for soil conditioning,soil carbon sequestration and bamboo forestry cultivation in the future were discussed.
Investigation and Research on Bamboo Industry of Chimonobambusa quadrangularis in Xingwen County
ZHOU Yong-chao, WU Ding-wei, WU Bo-lin, SU Hua, ZHOU Xing-lin, LIU Rong, LIU Zhi-liang
2023, 42(4): 68-74. doi: 10.12390/jbr2023048
Abstract(80) PDF(84)
Abstract:
【Objective】 In order to promote the development of Chimonobambusa quadrangularis bamboo industry in Xingwen County. 【Method】 The distribution,management,processing and sales of Ch. quadrangularis bamboo in Xingwen county were investigated. And based on the investigation data,the main factors affecting industrial development of Xingwen Ch. quadrangularis bamboo industry have been analyzed to fully leverage the advantages and value of Xingwen Ch. quadrangularis bamboo. 【Result】 The new development model of Ch. quadrangularis bamboo industry has been proposed,including the implementation of classified management and targeted cultivation of bamboo forests. 【Conclusion】 The proposal of these development models ensures the healthy and sustainable development of the Ch. quadrangularis bamboo industry in Xingwen,and can also increase income for the people in mountainous areas,while contributing to the construction of Tianfu Forest Granary.
Big Bamboo Raft in the History of Anji, Zhejiang Province
ZHANG Hong-liang, ZHANG Chun-liang
2023, 42(4): 75-80. doi: 10.12390/jbr2023002
Abstract(121) PDF(42)
Abstract:

Big raft is the main transportation method for Anji commercial bamboo of Phyllostachys edulis. It has lasted a thousand years in Tiaoxi watershed in northwest of Zhejiang province. This article explains the process of production,use and sales of Anji Big Bamboo Raft,and the unique rafting culture arising therefrom.

A Brief Study on the Formation of Bamboo Culture from the Pre-Qin Period to the Han Dynasty
LI Tai-lin, JIANG Xing-yi, CHU Xing-biao
2023, 42(4): 81-92. doi: 10.12390/jbr2023004
Abstract(255) PDF(139)
Abstract:
Bamboo culture,one of the traditional Chinese cultures,covers many aspects such as landscape gardening,architectural dwellings,poetry,painting and calligraphy,and utensil manufacturing etc.,and is closely related to the lives of the working people in China. Based on the comprehensive integration of historical documents and archaeological reports,this study investigates the origin and historical generation of bamboo culture from the perspectives of bamboo resources,architecture and landscape gardening,bamboo artifacts,and chanting bamboo literature. It is believed that bamboo culture has materiality and spirituality. Before the Qin and Han dynasties,it was at its budding stage,and it was not until the Han dynasties that it began to be highly praised by Confucianism and Taoism,being gradually integrated into production practice and social life,its connotation had been continuously enriched and improved which had laid the foundation for the fanatical pursuit from future generations of literati and writers. From “natural bamboo” to “humanistic bamboo”,the generation of bamboo culture has profound impacts on the development of the Chinese civilization,which,to some extent,determines the pursuit orientation and value selection benchmark of national culture. Meanwhile,it provides iconic,regional,and national symbols for the foundation construction of the traditional Chinese culture,and also has important enlightenment for the local cultural belief system and cultural inheritance of the nation.