2022 Vol. 41, No. 4

Display Method:
Application Research of Bamboo Recombining in Original Status in Landscape Architecture
YAN Wei, SHI Tian-tian, YU Lan-fang, CAO Chun-hong, ZHANG Bin, ZHOU Jian-bo, FU Wan-si
2022, 41(4): 1-9. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022110
Abstract(119) PDF(32)
Abstract:
As natural carbon storage material, bamboo is an important material for garden architecture. Bamboo has a long history and is still popular in modern gardens. Bamboo Recombining in Original Status (BROS) is a novel type of recombinant bamboo, which fully retains the original structure of bamboo and has excellent mechanical properties. The main types of BROS include bionic recombining bamboo, arc recombining bamboo, trapezoidal recombining bamboo etc. Based on the literature review, this paper explored and analyzed the application of BROS in the decoration of garden furniture, rest facilities and load-bearing structure. BROS displayed unique texture and expressiveness, which produced perfect integration of nature and technology. The innovative recombinant bamboo meets the performance need of garden architectural design, and can effectively replace the traditional bamboo products, and will bring new opportunities for the development of garden architecture.
Research Progress on Mechanical Property and Connection Performance of Engineered Bamboo
FENG Ya-qin, WANG Xue, YU Xiao-hong
2022, 41(4): 10-18. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022119
Abstract(175) PDF(52)
Abstract:
Engineered bamboo has the advantages of high strength, high weather resistance, high dimensional stability and strong corrosion resistance. With the continuous development and utilization of engineered bamboo, it has been well applied in construction, furniture, transportation and other fields. The study on the joint performance is an important guarantee for the quality and safety of modern bamboo and wood structures. The research progress of engineered bamboo was summarized from the basic mechanical properties and joint connection performance. The three basic stress forms of compression, bending and shear of engineered bamboo and measures to enhance the bearing capacity of engineered bamboo were elucidated. The effects of tooth plate connection, bolt connection and metal sleeve connection were analyzed based on the bearing capacity, failure mode of engineered bamboo and the laws affected by different parameters. The errors were summarized in the relevant calculation theories of wood structure design specifications at home and abroad. Results suggest it is necessary to formulate the relevant standards and specifications of engineered bamboo as soon as possible, in order to promote the further application and development of engineered bamboo.
Effect of Bamboo Units with Different Scales on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo-based Panel
LV Cheng-long, YIN Xin-shun, CHEN Lei, SHI Jiang-tao, XU Bin, WANG Xin-zhou
2022, 41(4): 19-25. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022114
Abstract(96) PDF(36)
Abstract:
Developing a kind of high-strength bamboo-based panel and expanding its application in the field of engineered construction is an effective way to realize the concept of “building materials utilization of bamboo”. In this paper, the Dendrocalamus farinosus bamboo was processed into three scales of bamboo units including bamboo strips, bamboo bundles and vascular fibers. And four kinds of bamboo-based panels with different mat structure were pressed. The physical, mechanical properties and the cross-section structure of panels were analyzed. Results indicated that the thickness swelling, bending and tensile properties of all kinds of bamboo-based panels met the middle or upper grade requirements specified in GB/T 40247—2021 “Bamboo scrimber”. Among the four kinds of panel, the physical and mechanical properties of panel made of bamboo stripes are the worst, while those of the panel made of vascular fibers are the best. The bending elastic modulus, bending strength and tensile strength of the panel made of vascular fibers reached 27.0 GPa, 338.0 MPa and 281.2 MPa respectively. Its specific modulus and strength was 24.1 GPa and 302.3 MPa, which exceeds that of glass fiber reinforced aluminum alloy laminate (GLALL), and are equivalent to that of aramid aluminum alloy laminate (ARALL). It has a great prospect in the field of engineered constructions. However, the result of cross-section structure obtained by scanning electronic microscope (SEM) showed that there are obvious interlayer cracks between the vascular fibers in the panel. Thus, optimizing the adhesive spraying and hot pressing process shall be done to improve the mechanical properties.
Study on Influencing Factors and Characterization of Ash Content of Bambusa sinospinosa Charcoal
SHAO Yuan-chao, TIAN Hua-yu, WANG Guo-rui, HAO Hai-yan, ZHANG Min, ZHANG Wen-biao
2022, 41(4): 26-34. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022081
Abstract(159) PDF(32)
Abstract:
In order to better use of Bambusa sinospinosa charcoal and develop a high value-added product, the research on relationship among bamboo ash content, microstructure and other manufactureing processes were conducted. The effects of different site conditions, bamboo age, position and carbonization process on the ash content of B. sinospinosa charcoal were studied by single factor experiment method. The changes of functional groups, microstructure and elemental content of B. sinospinosa and carbon were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron microscopy (SEM), BET specific surface area and ICP elemental analysis merthod. The results showed that: (1) The ash content of B. sinospinosa charcoal was the lowest (4.36%) under the following carbonization processing conditions: 3-year-old bamboo timber from the base of the shady slope, heating rate 5 ℃·min-1, carbonization temperature 500 ℃,2 h. The maximum ash content was 8.80% under the following conditions: 5-year-old bamboo timber from the upper part of the sunny slope,carbonization temperature 1 000 ℃, 4 h, heating rate of 5 ℃·min-1. The ash content of B. sinospinosa from the sunny slope was slightly higher than that from the shady slope. The ash content of B. sinospinosa decreased from the upper slope to the lower slope and from the tip to the base of bamboo culm,and increased with the increase of bamboo age,carbonization temperature and time. (2)With the increase of carbonization temperature, ash content increased. Infrared absorption spectrum showed that the peak values weakened after carbonization,and there was no significant difference in the peak values under the different carbonization conditions. The results of elemental analysis showed that there was little difference in the elemental content of B. sinospinosa under different conditions, The elemental content decreased after carbonizatio, and decreased slightly with the increase of carbonization temperature. (3)After carbonization, the morphology of B. sinospinosa charcoal became relatively smooth and flat with clear outline. With the increase of carbonization temperature, the pore structure increased significantly, The specific surface area, total pore volume and micropore volume showed an increasing trend, and the pore volume rate also increased. The specific surface area of B. sinospinosa charcoal under the condition of lowest ash content was larger than that under the condition of highest ash content.
Characteristics of Rhizome Bud Bank,Rhizome Biomass and Shoot Quantity under Different Mulching Modes of Phyllostachys praecox ‘Prevernalis’
GAO Gui-bin, WEN Xing, ZHANG Xiao-ping, ZHONG Hao, PAN Yan-hong, WU Zhi-zhuang
2022, 41(4): 35-44. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022058
Abstract(99) PDF(82)
Abstract:
The objective of this study was to innovate the mulching cultivation mode of Phyllostachys praecox Z. D. Chu et C. S. Chao 'Prevernalis’ plantation, effectively regulate the renewal of bamboo rhizome, and promote the sustainable management of bamboo forest. We compared the characteristics of rhizome bud bank, rhizome biomass, and quantity of sprouting shoots under traditional mulching (TM) and spaced mulching (SM) modes. The results showed that the total number of bud bank under SM was more than 470×104 individuals·hm-2, significantly higher than those under TM modes in 4-year (TM4) and 5-year (TM5) treatments (P<0.05). The relative reduction rate of bamboo bud banks of TM vs SM in TS1 (1-year TM vs 1-year SM) and TS2 (2-year TM vs 2-year SM) increased by 10%-20% in TS3 (3-year TM vs 3-year SM) and TS4 (4-year TM vs 4-year SM), and by 20%-40% in TS4 and TS5 (5-year TM vs 5-year SM). The overall rhizome biomass under SM was higher than that under TM. The rhizome biomass under TM decreased sharply after 3 years of TM (TM3) (P<0.05), whereas this change under SM was relatively slight. The relative reduction rate of bamboo rhizome biomass in TS1 and TS3 was less than 5%, and increased abruptly in TS4 and by more than 20% in TS5. The relative reduction rate of rhizome root biomass in TS5 was more than 15%. The shoot weight and shoot number under SM and TM decreased with increasing mulching period; the relative reduction rates of shoot weight and shoot number were less than 2% and not significantly different among treatments (P>0.05). The rhizome bud bank, rhizome biomass, and bamboo shoot productivity of bamboo stands under SM were higher than those under TM. Therefore, the spaced mulching mode not only maintained the rhizome bud bank and biomass of the bamboo forest, which is conducive to population renewal of the bamboo forest, but also maintained a certain level of bamboo shoot productivity.
Effects of Cr Pollution on Soil Quality of Phyllostachys violascens ‘Prevernalis’ Forests
XU Lei, ZHANG Xiao-ping, BIAN Fang-yuan, ZHOU Zhi-qin
2022, 41(4): 45-50. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022098
Abstract(147) PDF(56)
Abstract:
Because of its high biomass and strong heavy metal tolerance,bamboo boasts huge phytoremediation potential. However,the effects of Cr pollution on the soil properties of Phyllostachys violascens 'Prevernalis’ forests are still unclear. In this study,the physicochemical properties of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of Ph. violascens 'Prevernalis’ along Cr pollution gradient were investigated,and the relationship between soil physicochemical properties and Cr content was analyzed. The results showed that soil pH and the content of alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen decreased with the increase of Cr pollution,while the content of organic carbon increased with the increase of Cr pollution. There were no significant differences in the contents of total and available Cr between rhizosphere soil and non-rhizosphere soil with low Cr pollution,but the contents of available Cr in non-rhizosphere soil with moderate and high Cr pollution were significantly higher than those in rhizosphere soil. The available Cr in the soils with moderate and high Cr pollution accounted for 1.5%-2.6% of total Cr,which were significantly higher than that in the soil with low Cr pollution. Cr content in the soil was positively correlated with the contents of total organic carbon and available Cr,but was negatively correlated with soil pH. In both non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere soils,with the increase of Cr concentration,soil pH and the content of available potassium decreased,and the contents of organic carbon and available phosphorus increased. This paper unveils the impacts of Cr pollution on soil quality of Ph. violascens 'Prevernalis’ forests,which provides scientific basis for improving the phytoremediation effect of bamboo.
Study on the Effects of Different Nitrogen Sources on the Fermentation of Bamboo Sawdust and the Mycelia Growth of Stropharia rugosoannulata
WU Yi-fan, ZHONG Chu-meng, LIU Li-na, CHEN Shen, LU Yong-bo, XIE Jin-zhong
2022, 41(4): 51-57. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022103
Abstract(76) PDF(92)
Abstract:
In order to explore the best nitrogen source for the cultivation of Stropharia rugosoannulata by bamboo sawdust fermentation, four different nitrogen sources namely urea, wheat bran, corn flour and rapeseed cake were added by taking pure bamboo chip as the control. The effects of bamboo chips added with different nitrogen sources on fermentation temperature, physical and chemical properties during the fermentation and mycelial growth of S. rugosoannulata were analyzed. The results showed that the mycelial growth of S. rugosoannulata was significantly positively correlated with total nitrogen, hydrolyzed nitrogen, soluble sugar and water holding porosity (P<0.01). It was significantly negatively correlated with pH, carbon nitrogen ratio and gas water ratio (P<0.05).It was weakly correlated with EC, organic carbon, phosphorus, potassium, bulk density and aeration porosity (P>0.05). When bamboo chips were added with 4% rapeseed cake and had a C/N ratio of 44.02, it had the longest effective temperature (>50 ℃, 14 days). The water holding capacity, total nitrogen, hydrolytic nitrogen and soluble sugar content of the fermented material were significantly higher than those of other treatments. After inoculation, the mycelium grows best and grows fastest (3.24 mm·d-1), which can be used as the cultivation substrate of S. rugosoannulata.
Effects of Fertilization Methods on Nitrogen Runoff in Shoot-use Phyllostachys edulis Forest
YANG Jie
2022, 41(4): 58-66. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022087
Abstract(98) PDF(103)
Abstract:
In order to study the effects of different fertilization methods on runoff nitrogen in Phyllostachys edulis forest, typical shoot-use Ph. edulis forest were selected, eighteen runoff experimental fields were established and the NH4+-N, NO3--N, TN, TP in runoff water samples were tested. The results shows that the contents of NH4+-N, NO3--N and TN in runoff waters were increased sharply and decreased slowly after fertilization in Ph. edulis forest, while no uniform variation tendency observed across whole study. During whole test times, the annual runoff amount of NH4+-N, NO3--N and TN were all as following ordering: scatter application > furrow application > hole application, in which the annual runoff amount of NH4+-N, NO3--N and TN for scatter application treatment were 228 g·hm-2, 178 g·hm-2 and 418 g·hm-2, respectively. And the runoff amounts of NH4+-N, NO3--N and TN in hole application treatment Ph. edulis forest were 101 g·hm-2, 104 g·hm-2 and 418 g·hm-2, respectively. The results of significance analysis showed that the single loss of NH4+-N in the scatter application treatment was significantly higher than that in the furrow and hole application treatment on May 8th and June 10th (P<0.05), the single loss of NO3--N was only on April 9th, and there was a significant difference between scatter application and hole application (P<0.05). However, in the whole test cycle, there was no significant difference in TN loss between different treatments (P>0.05).
Study on the Mechanism of Precise Help Based on Bamboo Cultivation and Management Skill Improvement, A Case Study of Longsheng
LAN Lan, YANG Tu-miao, XIONG Wen-peng, MA Shuai
2022, 41(4): 67-70. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022129
Abstract(101) PDF(30)
Abstract:
Longsheng is one of the rocky desertification areas, bamboo resources is its important native species, is also an important source of income for bamboo farmers. The cultivation technology of bamboo forest is backward, the production skill level is low, the yield and quality of bamboo shoot is low, thus, the potential for farmers to increase income is large. Based on the present situation of bamboo resources in Longsheng, this paper puts forward some key measures, such as the high-efficiency cultivation technology and application of main bamboo species, the skill improvement of bamboo resources utilization, the key measures of precise connection between production and marketing, which can provide some reference for bamboo industry to increase income in underdeveloped areas.
Exploration and Practice of “Safe and Beautiful” Bamboo Scenic Spot Based on Digital Intelligent Technology
ZHANG Fu-yong
2022, 41(4): 71-75. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022132
Abstract(145) PDF(39)
Abstract:
Based on digital intelligent technology and relied on the construction of “Police Brain”, this paper selects Wuyun mountain scenic spot of West Lake Scenic Area as the practice site, develops and builds “air-ground integration prevention and control system”, and deepens the operation mechanism of “Xizi vigilantes”, to explore the bamboo scenic area model of high-quality development of “modern policing”, deeply promote the integration of scenery and village, precise security, and multiple co-governance, practice the ecological development of integration of production development, rich life and good ecology, build a governance pattern of “co-construction, co-governance and sharing” for bamboo scenic spots,and comprehensively create a typical sample of “safe and beautiful” bamboo scenic spot.
Research Progress of Gene Resources and Application Technology in Bamboo
XU Dan-dan, LI Xin-lin, DENG Wei-fen, JIANG Si-yuan, REN Hui-min, WANG An-ke, DU Xu-hua, LIU Shen-kui, QI Guo-ning
2022, 41(4): 76-85. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022116
Abstract(257) PDF(97)
Abstract:
Bamboo is one of the most important tree species in the world and in our country, and has a significant economic and ecological value. The improvement of bamboo germplasm resources is a major need for the development of bamboo industry. With the progress of molecular biology research, especially the analysis of bamboo genome and the establishment of genetic transformation system, it is gradually possible to use modern biological techniques to improve bamboo germplasm. This paper gives a detailed review of the progress of bamboo research in recent years, which includes the process of bamboo genome resolution, the mining of key genes regulating the growth and development of bamboo and the establishment of bamboo regeneration and genetic transformation system. In the end, the application of new technologies of genetic transformation in bamboo is prospected. This paper provides a systematic summary of the key genes and key technologies that have been explored in current bamboo research, and serves as a reference for future research on bamboo germplasm innovation.
The Current Status and Trends of Ornamental Bamboo Research
LI Hao, HE Ming-liang, CHEN Qi-bing
2022, 41(4): 86-92. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022024
Abstract(99) PDF(39)
Abstract:
Ornamental bamboo has a long history of application in Chinese gardens and is deeply loved by the people. It has good ecological, economic, landscape and culture values. This paper elucidates the concept of ornamental bamboo, summarizes the research achievements of ornamental bamboo in China in the aspects of genetic diversity, bamboo cold resistance, bamboo introduction and breeding, directional cultivation and landscape application, meanwhile, analyzes and summarizes the hot issues of ornamental bamboo research. The future development trend of ornamental bamboo industry is considered, and suggestions and countermeasures are put forward.