2021 Vol. 40, No. 3

Display Method:
Analysis of Forestry Projects Funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China during 2013-2019
LAO Wan-li, LIANG Wei, HAN Yan-ming, MA Qing
2021, 40(3): 1-6. doi: 10.12390/jbr2021011
Abstract(279) PDF(104)
Forestry projects sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) over the period 2013-2019 were investigated. Their overall conditions, project categories, subject areas, supporting institutions and regional distributions were systematically analyzed to provide references for researchers and managers in forestry. Meanwhile, some ideas were proposed for the development of the fundamental forestry research.
Effects of Long-term Mulching on Appearance, Nutrition and Taste of Bamboo Shoots of Phyllostachys violascens
YANG Li-ting, XIE Yan-yan, YU Wen-xian, CHEN Shuang-lin, GUO Zi-wu, XU Sen, GU Rui
2021, 40(3): 7-12. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022003
Abstract(215) PDF(47)
Phyllostachys violascens is a superior shoot-oriented bamboo species in China, and performing mulching measures can promote early shoot emergence and increase the economic benefits of bamboo plantation. Although it was evident that long-term mulching led to soil degradation and land productivity decline, its effects on the shoots quality were unknown. In this study, three mulching modes were investigated, including long-term mulching (consecutive 6-year mulching), respite-mulching (3-year mulching + 3-year respite) and non-mulching (CK). The appearance, nutrition and taste of bamboo shoots were assessed and the impacts of long-term mulching on shoots quality were analyzed, which shed light on the theoretical underpinnings of the sustainable management of bamboo plantation and high-quality shoot cultivation. The results showed that compared to CK mode, the length, basal diameter and individual weight of the shoots in respite-mulching mode were significantly improved, while the contents of protein, starch, cellulose, soluble sugar, oxalic acid, total acid, aromatic amino acids and total amino acids were evidently lower. Meanwhile, the contents of lignin and tannin, the edible rate and the sugar-acid ratio decreased slightly. However, the length, basal diameter, individual weight, the contents of protein, starch, soluble sugar, aromatic amino acids and total amino acids, the edible rate and the sugar-acid ratio of the shoots in respite-mulching mode were all notably greater than those in long-term mulching mode. Meanwhile, the height-diameter ratio, the contents of cellulose, lignin, tannin, oxalic acid and total acid and the content and proportion of bitter amino acids were all markedly lower. All these results indicated that long-term mulching treatment led to decreases in individual weight and edible rate but increases in tartness and roughness of bamboo shoots, which resulted in serious deterioration of shoots quality. Therefore, it was suggested the respite-mulching mode should be adopted.
Effects of Intensive Management on Main Soil Physical Properties of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami Forest
JIANG Ke-sen
2021, 40(3): 13-21. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022002
Abstract(242) PDF(45)
In order to study the impacts of intensive management on soil physical properties of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami forest, samples of tillage layers (0-20 cm) of three soil types, i.e., sandy red, yellowish red and red, for bamboo planting were collected. A series of soil parameters were measured, including bulk density, total porosity, capillary porosity, non-capillary porosity, natural water content, field water capacity, capillary water content, saturated water content and percolation rate. Results showed that because of intensive management, the bulk density and field water capacity of sandy red soil in bamboo forest increased by 1.22% and 1.80%, respectively, while the total porosity, non-capillary porosity, natural water content, capillary water content and saturated water content decreased by 8.16%, 39.23%, 14.61%, 2.94% and 7.94%, respectively. For yellowish red soil, the intensive management caused the natural water content to increase by 7.38%, and the bulk density, total porosity, capillary porosity, non-capillary porosity, field water capacity, capillary water content and saturated water content decreased by 1.44%, 6.86%, 6.04%, 13.26%, 5.66%, 1.99% and 3.01%, respectively. And for red soil, the intensive management increased the total porosity and non-capillary porosity by 1.08% and 104.54%, respectively, but decreased capillary porosity, natural water content, field water capacity and capillary water content by 4.52%, 11.41%, 6.12% and 2.28%, respectively. Additionally, the K10's of sandy red soil, yellowish red soil and red soil were elevated by 47.37%, 54.29% and 22.73% respectively, indicating that intensive management led to an increase in the soil percolation rate.
Characteristics of Nutrient Demand of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami Forest under Long-term Intensive Management
YANG Jie, ZHENG Rong, WEN Xiao-yun, ZHENG Rui-yu, WU Cheng-wen
2021, 40(3): 22-28. doi: 10.12390/jbr2021007
Abstract(251) PDF(46)
Dendrocalamopsis oldhami is a superior shoot-oriented bamboo species. This study aimed to unravel the characteristics of nutrient demand of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami forest under long-term intensive management in order to implement targeted precise nutrient management,increase the efficiency of fertilization and improve the overall production of bamboo shoots. "3414" fertilization scheme was applied to the selected Dendrocalamopsis oldhami forest under long-term intensive management,and relevant data were collected and analyzed under various treatments,including the number of shoots,the yield of shoots,maximum single weight and maximum shoot diameter. The results showed that fertilization significantly increased the number and the yield of shoots. Those under N2P2K1 treatment boasted the largest number and yield yearly,which were 53.1×103 hm-2 and 17.9 t·hm-2,respectively,an increase of 92.8% and 106.9% compared to those under non-fertilization treatment,or an increase of 31.1% and 28.8% compared to those under conventional fertilization treatment. A regression analysis indicated that the highest yield of 15,795.72 kg·hm-2 was achieved when the amounts of applied N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizers were 306.91 kg·hm-2,0 kg·hm-2 and 355.14 kg·hm-2,respectively. The conventional practice in bamboo forest applied excessive nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers,which resulted in soil rich in phosphorus and poor in potassium. In the short term,an increase in potassium fertilizer and a reduction in phosphorus one were essential to further enhancing the shoot yield of Dendrocalamopsis oldhami forest under long-term intensive management.
Preparation of Cylinder Activated Carbon from (Bambusa blumeana) Bamboo Charcoal via Steam Activation and Its Adsorption Performance
WANG Guo-rui, XU Guang-fu, DU Song-qing, WANG Zhong-hua, CHENG Jian-xin, ZHANG Wen-biao
2021, 40(3): 29-35. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022006
Abstract(442) PDF(84)
Cylinder activated carbon (CAC) was prepared by steam activation of extruded (Bambusa blumeana) bamboo charcoal using bamboo tar as a binder in this work. Effects of tar addition,activation temperature and time on CAC adsorption performance were investigated. Results showed that the optimal processing was achieved by using 30% tar as binder and activating at 850 ℃ for 3 h. The resultant CAC featured iodine number of 1 096 mg·g-1,methylene blue adsorption of 131 mg·g-1,strength of 97.89% and yield of 43.33%. Moreover,a type-Ⅰ N2 isotherm was also observed for the CAC obtained from the optimal processing,and accordingly its specific surface area,total pore volume,micro-pore volume and micro-pore percentage were determined,being 875.73 m2·g-1,0.471 cm3·g-1,0.394 cm3·g-1 and 83.6%,respectively,which demonstrated that as-prepared CAC had abundant micro-pore structure. The images of scanning electron microscope also confirmed that a clear profile of activated carbon was seen on the CAC surface,the inter-particle vacancies were noticeable,and little residues were observed after the steam activation of the tar-bonded/extruded bamboo charcoal. And according to the results,the tar served as supportive framework for extruded bamboo charcoal,and further enhanced the strength of CAC.
An Investigation into Germplasm Resources and Utilization of Bamboo Shoots in Geographical Region of Hangzhou
TANG Hua-qin, MA Nai-xun, YU De-quan, CHENG Jian-bin, ZHANG Rui-hua
2021, 40(3): 36-48. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022010
Abstract(287) PDF(47)
This study aimed to reveal the status of protection and utilization of bamboo shoot resources in all districts of Hangzhou City. Bamboo species, quantity, scale, distribution, quality and utilization were investigated. The results showed that Phyllostachys pubescens was the dominant species. Along with Phyllostachys praecox, Phyllostachys prominens and other small-diameter bamboo species, they constituted four main categories of bamboo shoot resources with distinct structural characteristics. Their respective specialized utilization and industrial development patterns were established. At present, in order to tackle some emerging issues such as rising labor costs, decline in moso bamboo price, degradation of Phyllostachys praecox plantation, insufficient intensive management of other bamboo species and intensified market competition, it is necessary to expediate the implementation of the technical model of high-quality urban economic development, so as to achieve the common prosperity in bamboo shoots sector. Some routes and measures to optimize the protection and utilization of bamboo shoots were proposed.
Research Progress of Biochar in Controlling Fusarium Wilt
WANG Jin-chao, CHEN Li-min, JIN Ai-wu, CHEN Ting-ting, ZHANG Yan, ZHU Qiang-gen
2021, 40(3): 49-59. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022009
Abstract(296) PDF(41)
Biochar is the solid pyrolysis product of incomplete combustion of plants or their residues under low oxygen condition. It has a great application prospect in soil improvement. Previous studies showed that biochar, especially bamboo charcoal, had a good performance in controlling Fusarium wilt on a variety of crops. The authors summarized the research on the mechanisms for preventing and controlling Fusarium wilt by biochar as well as the factors affecting its efficacy. The review showed that biochar indirectly controlled Fusarium wilt by improving soil physical and chemical properties, regulating soil microecology and adsorbing Fusarium and Fusarium toxin. In addition, biochar induced crop immunity against Fusarium wilt and further changed the internal factors of crop resistance to this disease. Hence biochar could be a new green material to effectively control Fusarium wilt. The effects of biochar on controlling Fusarium wilt were quite different among crops. Meanwhile, the type of raw material, the pyrolysis temperature and applied biochar dose were also crucial to the actual efficacy of biochar in the field. Future research might delineate the metabolic pathways of biochar-induced immunity against Fusarium wilt with advanced molecular biology techniques, investigate the interaction of biochar, crops, soils and pathogens by multi-omics analysis, and further elucidate the underlying mechanisms for preventing and controlling Fusarium wilt using biochar. More efforts should be made on the study of specific biochar originating from bamboo and agricultural and forestry waste, which are abundant in nature and ready for sustainable utilization, so as to provide theoretical and technical support for industrial-scale production and applications.
Freezing Injury Investigation and Estimation on Bamboos in Southern Anhui Experienced Extreme Low Temperature
YUE Jin-jun, ZHANG Yun-shan, ZHANG Ping, YUAN Jin-ling, LIU Lei
2021, 40(3): 60-66. doi: 10.12390/jbr2021009
Abstract(249) PDF(38)
Low temperature in winter is one of the main environmental restraints on the northward expansion of bamboo in China. The research on the freezing injury of bamboo at extreme low temperatures is of great significance for the introduction and cultivation of bamboo. In this study, the growth of 112 bamboo species of 22 genera in southern Anhui Province, which experienced extreme low temperatures in January 2016, was investigated. The results showed that species in genera Shibataea, Phyllostachys, Pleioblastus and Sinobambusa had greater cold tolerance and grew normally, sustaining little or no freezing injury. Therefore these species should be good candidates for planting. Leaves of species of genera Acidosasa, Oligostachyum, Pseudosasa, Indocalamus, Chimonobambusa, Semiarundinaria and Indosasa suffered injury due to cold weather. But as the temperature rose, new leaves regenerated quickly, indicating these species might be planted selectively. Compared with others, the species of genera Bambusa had a lower cold tolerance, and their leaves, branches and culms suffered severe freezing injury, which seriously jeopardized the normal growth in the next year. Therefore, Bambusa multiplex and its varieties should be planted after rigorous evaluation.
Acidosasa anaurita (T. H. Wen) N. H. Xia et Z. X. Zhang, a New Combination of Acidosasa (Poaceae: Bambusoideae)
ZHANG Zhi-Xian, CAI Zhuo-Yu, XIA Nian-He
2021, 40(3): 67-72. doi: 10.12390/jbr2021010
Abstract(395) PDF(41)
The combination of Acidosasa anaurita (Wen) W. Y. Zhang et N. X. Ma is not validly published because its basionym is not clearly indicated and a full and direct reference not given to its author and place of valid publication, with page or plate reference and date, which fail to conform to the rule 41.5 of International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. Therefore, we make a validation for this combination. Meanwhile, we apply the concept of synflorescence to analyze and describe the floral morphological characters of this species. A. anaurita and Oligostachyum spongiosum should be treated as two different species.
A New Variety of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) in Sichuang Province, China-Yushania mabianensis Yi var. atropunicea
YUE Jin-jun, ZHENG Ren-hong, ZHANG Ling, WANG Qiu, YUAN Jin-ling
2021, 40(3): 73-74. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022021
Abstract(572) PDF(52)
A new variety of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) in Sichuan Province, China, Yushania mabianensis Yi var. atropunicea, is described. It differs from Yushania mabianensis in that its new culm appears to be red and old culm becomes purple-red or purple-black; culm is smooth without purple spots or setulae; and culm sheaths are not obvious persistent. The voucher specimens were deposited in the herbarium of RISF, CAF.
Effects of Soil-covering Thickness on Yield and Quality of Bamboo (Phyllostachys prominens) Shoots
CHEN Li-hua, HU Jun-jing, HU De-sheng, LEI Yi-chen, LAI Xiang-yan, HE Qi-jiang
2021, 40(3): 75-80. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022019
Abstract(248) PDF(41)
Phyllostachys prominens is a superior bamboo species for both shoot and culm production. The quality and economic benefit of bamboo shoots could be significantly improved by soil-covering cultivation. In order to scientifically implement the soil-covering cultivation technique, the effects of different soil-covering thicknesses (CK, 10 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm) on the yield, appearance, nutrients, flavor substances, amino acid contents of Phyllostachys prominens shoots were analyzed. The results showed that the thickness of covering soil had important impacts on the yield and quality of bamboo shoots. Soil covering thicknesses of 10 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm all led to the elevated yield and quality of bamboo shoots. While 10 cm soil covering had limited effects, both 30 cm and 50 cm coverings significantly improved the yield and quality of bamboo shoots, although there was no significant difference between these two treatments. And 50 cm soil covering apparently incurred higher cost, which was not conducive to the sustainable management of Phyllostachys prominens plantation. Therefore, from the comprehensive analysis of shoot quality and economic benefits, it was concluded that the suitable soil-covering thickness for the high-quality shoots cultivation of Phyllostachys prominens was 30 cm.
Discussion on the Whole Chain Development Path of Bamboo Industry in Lin'an under the Background of Rural Operation
JI Zong-fu, GUO Ren-cong, WU Yan-long
2021, 40(3): 81-84. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022027
Abstract(303) PDF(44)
The whole-chain development model of the bamboo industry has strong vitality, but it faces some challenges in practical operation. It is of great significance to promote the whole-chain development of the bamboo industry with the concept of rural operation. The development of the whole industrial chain of bamboo sector in Lin'an District of Hangzhou has many advantages, such as a sound industrial foundation, outstanding innovation subjects and a good business reputation. The existing problems include unconnected management entities, non-integrated innovative technologies, scattered creative products and absence of overall coordinators. By introducing the concept of rural operation, a top-level design can be strengthened to lead rural operators to fulfill the management responsibilities, consolidate the bamboo cultural industry in an all-round way, and build a carrier for the whole-process, in-depth tourist experience of bamboo culture, which can effectively promote the whole-chain development of bamboo industry in Lin'an.
Analysis of Precipitation Redistribution and Hydrological Effect in Bamboo Forest
WANG An-ke, ZHOU Zhou, LIN Shang-ping, DU Xu-hua, BI Yu-fang, GUO Fan, WANG Yu-kui
2021, 40(3): 85-89. doi: 10.12390/jbr2021002
Abstract(317) PDF(48)
In order to understand the precipitation distribution law and hydrological effect of bamboo forest ecosystem, the precipitation redistribution process in bamboo forest was analyzed, which may provide basis for optimizing eco-economic planting of bamboo forest. The results showed that the soil erosion was reduced because bamboo leaves, branches, culms and ground litter were all able to retain a certain amount of atmospheric precipitation and effectively alleviate the direct erosion of the land caused by the rainfall and surface runoff. However, compared with other different types of forests, pure bamboo forests didn't have significant advantages in terms of precipitation interception and interception rate. Especially for the intensively managed bamboo forests, there were almost no shrubs or grasses in the forests, and the accumulation of litter was much less than that in the wild bamboo forests, which led to poor water retention capability. Therefore, in the eco-economic management of bamboo forests, it is of great importance to preserve and protect undergrowth shrubs and other vegetation. Meanwhile, the proper plant density of bamboo forests shall be determined and the mixed forests of bamboo and broadleaved shall be established according to different environmental conditions, such as slope, soil texture, soil structure, etc.
Carbon Sequestration Component, Fixing Mechanism and Future Research for Bamboo Forest Ecosystem
LV Heng, ZHANG Jian, YANG Yang-yang, LENG Li-song, GUO Fan, BIAN Fang-yuan
2021, 40(3): 90-94. doi: 10.12390/jbr2022008
Abstract(565) PDF(62)
Global climate change remains a pressing challenge for the world. Research on carbon sink function of bamboo forest ecosystem is gaining momentum within China and abroad. Bamboo forest is top-ranked in term of carbon storage among China's forest vegetation types. In this paper, carbon sequestration component and fixing mechanism were reviewed, and further research direction was suggested to provide theoretical basis and technical reference for carbon sequestration in bamboo ecosystem. Among all parts of bamboo plant, the culm has the largest carbon sequestration capacity, accounting for more than 52% of total, which in turn is followed by root, stump, branch, rhizome and leaf. Compared with Miscanthus (a C4 plant), bamboo has the same high level of biomass production rate and light-energy conversion efficiency. However, the quantity and quality of carbon sequestrated by bamboo are both better than those by the Miscanthus, due to higher lignification of bamboo tissue. Bamboo needs large amount of silicon. Bamboo roots absorb soluble silicon from the soil, which promotes weathering of silicate minerals and consumes more CO2 as well. Therefore, bamboo forest ecosystem has much larger carbon sequestration capacity via this biogeochemistry pathway than other forest systems with less silicon demand. Proposed future research includes investigating the mechanisms of high photosynthetic efficiency and superior carbon sink function of bamboo, cultivating and popularizing bamboo varieties with high phytolith content, and examining the carbon sequestration mechanism of black carbon in bamboo forest soil to make CO2 emission reduction more effective in the long term. In view of the important role of bamboo forest in carbon sequestration and emission reduction, exploring and unleashing the huge carbon sequestration potential of bamboo forests may provide ideas and methods for forest carbon sequestration to mitigate global climate change.